Introduction and background brief
Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam. Hajj is performed to Mecca and was made compulsory in the 9th year of Hijr. In this year, 300 people were sent by Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) to Mecca so that they perform Hajj. These people were headed by Hazrat Abubakr Siddique (may Allah be pleased with him). This year was the year when Mushrikeen (the infidels who associate partners with Allah) were not allowed to enter Holy Kaaba. Performing tawaaf naked was also unlawful and banned around the Kaaba.
The year after 9th that was 10th of Hijr when the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) made an announcement that he will perform Hajj himself. This announcement was done ahead of time so more and more people joined him. Tens of thousands of Muslims from everywhere joined him and later performed the rites and services of Hajj under his guidance. This particular Hajj is known as Hajjatul Wida or the Farewell Pilgrimage because it was the last pilgrimage performed by the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him). When the Hajj ended, the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) gave a public lecture in the form of a divine revelation that started 22 years ago and ended on the following verse of Surah Al-Maidah:
“This day have I completed My commandments for you, and have brought to its fullness the favor that I have bestowed upon you, and have chosen Islam as your religion”
In short pilgrimage is a form of worship for Muslims. Muslims perform the required rites and rituals during hajj just like they perform the necessary elements of five times prayer a day and fasting in the month of Ramadan. Muslims from world over gather in Mecca in the last month of the Islamic calendar and worship Allah and pray for the banishment of their sins. Hajj is the special pillar of Islam that lasts for several days. Hajj is a service to Allah that is free of race, color and regions of the world.
Significance & Philosophy of hajj
Every country and culture and religion have their places where they get together to worship their respective gods. When they unite, they see each other’s difficulties and problems and tend to solve them under the guidance of their respective gods. Similarly, Muslims from all over the world get together around Holy Kaaba and this serves as a unified act to overcome their sins and difficulties. Allah says in the Holy Quran: “And to every people We appointed rites of sacrifice, that they might mention the name of Allah…” (22:34)
Following this notion, Hajj has been made the centre of worship for Muslims who gather in this month and perform the rites and rituals of Hajj in order to get the blessings from Allah and as a source of banishment of their sins. People have this pillar of Islam in order to not only thank Allah for His blessings and showering of bliss upon them but also as a source of humble prayers. Muslims who reside in various parts of the world get together and form a sort of a social culture and give active advice to each other and form the basis of collective struggle for the betterment of their religion and world.
Who is obligated to perform Hajj?
All Muslims who are adult, sane and have a well functioning body along with the bearing of necessary funds to travel to and from Mecca must perform this sacred ritual and pillar of Islam once in their life time. While there should be total peace maintained in the way to travelling to and from Mecca as well as there should be no barriers or hindrances put forward by their respective countries. Hajj is not compulsory for children, sick adults and those who cannot bear the costs of travelling thus far.
What are the Timings of Hajj (Pilgrimage?)
There are certain months in the Islamic calendar which are labeled as months of hajj. These three months are Shawwal, Zeqaad and zilhajj. During these months, a Muslim prepares himself for the preparation of Hajj, fulfills the necessary conditions of Hajj and other necessary conditions of abstinence and physical conditions important for Hajj performance. The duties, rites and servies of Hajj should be performed between 8th and 13th of Zil Hajj. An additional tawaaf can be performed at the end of the month of Zil hajj.
Pillars of Hajj
The three foundational pillars of Hajj are as follows:
First and foremost is to enter in a state of Ehraam. It is the intention to perform the services of Hajj.
Secondly is to stay at the land of Arafat on the 9th day of Zil Hajj. If a Muslim cannot go to stay at Arafat his or her Hajj will not be completed and will have to perform Hajj next year.
Last but not least to perform tawaaf of the Holy Kaaba and is done on the 10th day of Zil Hajj month.
Sequence of Rites and Actions for performing Hajj:
A. Departure from Home
All Muslims who leave their home in order to perform the sacred pillar of Islam must be aware of their duties for the family and fellow humans that they leave behind. They must make arrangements for the maintenance of their family members etc and must be aware of the fact that he has to provide for their bread and butter. For the time he is away from home, his debt and loans should be paid off and must not be indebted so as to create problems for his family. He should also seek forgiveness and due forgiveness from his family members and other people whom he or she knows. He must stop all arrogant and egoist activities that he might be undertaking in his life beforehand. He should pray regularly and must be a strong keeper of fasts during the month of Ramadan. He must not be involved in any sort of unlawful or illegal or un Islamic practices of adultery, money laundering etc. He should seek forgiveness and repentance from Allah beforehand. His departure from home should make an impression for himself as a pious and diligent human being whose acts do not harm others. Other than giving something in charity, they should be supported by their adult Muslim Mehram companion. It can their husband, son or brother so on and so forth. The departure from home should resemble indeed their departure from this world.
B. Ihram at Miqat
At the place of Miqat which is one of the appointed places in Mecca where all the pilgrims take a vow of pilgrimage, the pilgrim should take a bath or perform wuzu/ablution. After bathing, men should cover their bodies in two pieces of cloth. The cloth should not be stitched and one piece of cloth should cover their lower part and one should cover their upper part. The head of the men should not be covered. This pair of clothing is actually called ihram. Ihram for women must not be unstitched rather women can perform hajj in any pair of clothes that they are wearing. Under normal conditions, women’s face should not be covered unless she wants to conceal herself upon her meeting with a stranger or an unknown person. During the days of Hajj, Muslims are supposed to wear the same simple dress. As soon as the pilgrim puts on the ihram, he or she comes in a state of purity and declares intention for hajj.
Once the ihram condition has been met, Muslim men and women pray two rakaat nafl (not compulsory) prayers. These prayers are followed by the intention recitation of the following verses:
“Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik; La Shareeka-laka Labbaik; Innalhamda wan-na’mata-laka wal-mulka Lashreeka-laka”
Translation of these verses is as follows:
“Here I am, O Allah! Here I am in Thy August presence; there is no associate with Thee, here am I; surely all praise is Thine and all favors are Thine and the kingdom is Thine, there is no associate with Thee.”
These words are recited in Arabic and called “Talbiyah”. These words are an essential part of the state of Ihram and Ihram will not complete without reciting these words. After saying Talbiyah pilgrim is ready to fulfill his obligation of Hajj and is required to fulfill all the conditions laid down for Hajj. While one is in the state of Ihram it is strictly forbidden to engage in foul talk, sexual conduct, arguments, or enter into a war. Allah says in the Holy Quran: “ …so whoever determines to perform the Pilgrimage in these months, should remember that there is to be no foul talk, nor any transgression, nor any quarreling during Pilgrimage. …” (2:198)
D. Entering Masjid-el-Haraam
Once Muslim men and women reach Mecca, they should go straight to Khana Kaaba which is the House of Allah. There they should perform tawaf of the Holy Place. It is said that the prayers that are wished upon the first sight of Holy Mosque are granted.
E. Istlam (Kissing the Hajr-e-Aswad)
The act of kissing the Hajr-e-Aswad (Black Stone) is called Istlam. While men and women perform Istlam, their hands should rest on the wall of the Holy Place in the same posture as their hands lie when they offer sajda while praying. If there is a lot of rush or people around the place or in case of any physical disabilities, it is said that you point your hands in the direction of hajr e aswad and blow kiss towards it.
F. Tawaaf (Circling of Kaaba)
After performing Istlam (kissing the Hajr-e-Aswad) as detailed above, a pilgrim should perform Tawaaf of Holy Kaaba. It is an act completed by going around that is walking around Khaana Kaaba seven times during which Khaana Kaaba is kept on the left hand side that results in a clockwise round. Istalam should be performed as directed above in each circle. The last circle or round should end at Hajr e aswad.
G. Nawafal at Muqam-e-Ibrahim
Once the Tawaaf is completed, the haaji or pilgrim should head towards the Muqam-e-Ibrahim (Place of Ibrahim). At this position one should put forward two Rakats of prayer while facing Holy Place.
H. Sa’ee (Running between Safa’ and Marwah)
Allah says in the Holy Quran about this act:
“Surely, Al-Safa and Al-Marwah are among the Signs of Allah. It is, therefore, no sin for him who is on pilgrimage to the House, or performs Umra, to go round the two. And who so does good beyond what is obligatory, surely then, Allah is Appreciating, All-Knowing.” (2:159)
Once the two rakaats are offered at the Muqam-e-Ibrahim , the pilgrim moves to a place called Safa. At this Safa, they should face towards Ka’ba and recite Durood e Ibrahimi, Takbir and Talbiyah. Then they should walk hurriedly and with vigor towards Marwah and recite the same at Marwah. This act is counted as one round between the mount of Safa and mount of Marwah. Now they should move to Safa and repeat the recitation that they are doing. They should complete seven rounds between mount of Safa and the mount of Marwah. This whole act is known as sa’ee.
After performing the rounds between Safa and Marwah mounts, the pilgrim is free to roam about and go to their hotel or resting places
I. Arriving at Mina
On 8th day of Zil-Hajj the pilgrims reach a land known as Mina earliest in the morning of theat day after performing Tawaaf-Qudoom. The pilgrims offer the prayers of Zuhar, Asar, Maghrib and Isha at the land of Mina and spend the night in the camp at Mina.
J. Arriving at Arafat
On 9th day of Zil-Hajj, once the eid prayers are offered the pilgrims should now route ahead for Arafat land. This is the most important of all services and rituals of the hajj. Without this the Hajj is incomplete. If somebody is unable to come to Arafat, his or her Hajj will be incomplete and will have to complete the Hajj next year. One should there listen to the sermon offered at the land of Arafat. They should stay at Arafat till the sunset and offer combined prayers for Zuhar and Asar.
K. Arriving at Muzdalifah
Pilgrims should leave the land of Arafat after sunset and reach Muzdalifah in the evening of 9th Zil-Hajj. Pilgrims should offer combined prayers of Maghrib and Isha at Muzdalifah. The pilgrims then spend the night at Muzdalifah land and keep praying and reciting duas.
L. Departure from Muzdalifah
On the 10th day of Zil-Hajj the pilgrims offer their Fajr prayers very early in the morning. After fajar prayers, they should leave Muzdalifa and go ahead to Mina. On their way, they should pick up seventy small stones from ground in order to perfrom rami. Rami is the act of throwing stones at the shaitan. They should throw seven stones at Jumrah-tul-Aqba. This performance of casting stones is called Rami. When you throw first stone, the need to repeatedly recite Talbiya goes up. That is you do not need to recite again. If the pilgrim wants to sacrifice an animal themselves, they should do so after casting stones else they should give money equivalent to the amount of animal sacrifice to somebody who can do it on their behalf. In either case, after the sacrifice is done, women should cut their hair about an inch and men should shave their hair completely. Once the shaving part is done, the condition of taking off ihram goes lifted and men and women can wear regular normal daily wear clothes.
M. Return to Mecca after sacrifice and hair cut. Perform Taawaf-e-Afaza
Once the Ihram restriction has overcome, the pilgrims should go to Khaana Kaaba in order to perform another tawaaf of the Holy Place. This tawaaf is known as the additional tawaaf or tawaaf-e-afaza. After this tawaaf, the pilgrim is permitted to come back to the any normal day routines and the lawful things related to physicality and other issues can be restored which were earlier forbidden.
N. Return to Mina after Tawaf-e-Afaza
After this tawaf has been performed, the pilgrim should return to Mina and stay at Mina camp for about three days. This stay during 11, 12 and 13th day of Zil-Hajj, the pilgrim should caste seven stones on each of the Jumrah in the order prescribed as: Jumrah-tul-Oola, Jamrah-tul-Wusta, and Juramh-tul-Aqba.
O. Return to Ka’ba and Farewell
On the 12th or the 13th Zil-Hajj, Muslims returns to the Khana Kaaba and perform a final tawaaf. This tawaaf is called Tawaf-al-Sadr or Tawaf-al-Wida (parting or farewell tawaaf). After this last tawaaf, the pilgrim should drink water freely from Zumzum, kiss the threshold of the door of the Holy Kaaba, and pray to Allah for forgiveness and repentance. He should leave the Khaana Kaaba area walking backwards, looking at it the last time. Once the farewell has been bid, the pilgrim should keep reciting duas for the acceptance of his or her hajj.
Prohibitions during the Pilgrimage
It is not allowed to wear sewn clothes or shave or cut hair while the pilgrim is in the course of performance of Hajj. Pilgrims should give fidya money if they have to shave their head or wear sewn clothes due to some illness or problems of lice.
Pilgrims should not hunt during the Hajj days. If the pilgrim hunts during the Hajj days, the pilgrims should offer the sacrifice of one animal during the course. For example, there are several conditions given, if a pilgrim hunts a deer, then a lamb should be sacrificed. If an ostrich is hunted then a camel should be hunted in return. If sacrifice is not possible, then one should give money equivalent to six poor people food for a day. If that is not possible, then a pilgrim should fast for three days.
Allah says in the Holy Quran:
“O ye who believe! Kill not game while you are in a state of pilgrimage. And whoso amongst you kills it intentionally, its compensation is a quadruped like unto that which he has killed, as determined by two just men from among you, the dame to be brought as an offering to the Ka’ba; or as an expiation he shall have to feed a number of poor persons, or fast an equivalent number of days, so that he may taste the penalty of his deed. As for the past, Allah forgives it; but whoso reverts to it, Allah will punish him for his offense. And Allah is Mighty, Lord of retribution.”
There are a lot of prohibitions in the course of Hajj and keeping of ihram, the restrictions include sexual intercourse with the spouse, playing game of sea and eating thereof, game of the land as well. Pilgrims should fear Allah and should be gathered in the Holy Place with the intention of keeping the Place clean and pious. Allah has made the Holy Kaaba as an inviolable House. This means that the House of Allah should be kept clean. That is so that the pilgrims know that “Allah knows what is in the heavens and what is in the earth, and that Allah knows all things well. Know that Allah is sever in punishment and that Allah is also Most Forgiving, Merciful.” (5:95-98)
If these restrictions are not met, pilgrims should offer a sacrifice of a camel at Mina.
If there is some difficulty or problem in the course of ihram for the Hajj or Umra such as illness, resistance by enemy to prevent from reaching Mecca, then one should sacrifice one animal before the ihram is removed. It is said in the Holy Quran: “ … but if you are kept back, then make whatever offering is easily available; and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches its destination … “ (2:197).
The simple tawaaf around Khaana Kaaba and the seven rounds between Mount Safa and Mount Marwa are called features of Umra. Umra can be performed around the year as there is no fixed month for umra performance. However, Umra cannot be performed during the 9th and 10 th of Zil hajj as these times are fixed for the Hajj performance. Getting into the state of Ihram and taking off of Ihram is carried out in exactly the same manner as for the full pilgrimage.
Types Of Hajj
There are three types of Hajj which are hajj mufrad, hajj tamattu and hajj qiran. These are explained in detail belows:
a. Hajj Mufrad:
All conditions of the Hajj Mufrad are same as described above in detail. The conditions of ihram, prohibitions and others are exactly the same.No Umra needs to be performed before Hajj.
b. Hajj Tamattu :
This hajj takes place when umra is performed before hajj. The pilgrim then removes Ihram for Umra on the 8th of Zil-Hajj and enters into the state of Ihram again for Hajj.
c. Hajj Qiran:
In this Hajj, the pilgrim enters into the state of Ihram for both Umra and the Hajj at one and the same time.
Places of Hajj inside Mecca
The centre of hajj is basically the Khaana Kaaba that was built by Prophet Ibrahim some 4000 years ago. In today’s world Khana Kaaba stands in the centre of a huge country yard of Masjid e Haraam. This is the sacred mosque. Other than Khaana Kaaba in the courtyard of Masjid e Haraam, there is the Muqaam e Ibrahim and the fountain place from which zam zam water emerges. Kaaba is the first house dedicated to the worship of Allah which is also called Bait ullah which literally means House of Allah. It is also called “Bait-ul-Ateeq” (the Oldest House), and Baitul Ma’amoor (Inhabited House).
All over the world, Muslims while praying face Khana Kaaba and all the mosques of the world are built so that they face Khaana Kaaba. The House manifests several signs and one of those signs is that fact that Allah takes care of His believers and this land testifies the fact that Allah will never ever destroy or harm those who submit their will to the will of Allah. Muslims are told to pay homage to this Holy Place and the other signs of Allah as Allah says in the Holy Quran:
“Surely, the first House founded for mankind is that at Becca (the valley of Mecca), abounding in blessings and a guidance for all peoples. In it are manifest signs; it is the place of Abraham; and whoso enters it, enters peace” (3:96-97)
And again: “ turn then thy face towards the sacred mosque and wherever ye be turn your faces towards that part ”Quran II,139/144.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Allah says: ‘Son of Adam: Fill your time with My worship and I will fill your heart with richness, and end off your poverty. But if you don’t, I would make your hands fully busy (i.e. in worldly affairs) and I would not end off your poverty.'” [Sunan Ibn Maajah; Musnad Ahmed; Sunan at – Tirmidhi, who said that it is a Hasan (good) hadeeth; as quoted in ‘The Creation is in Need of Allah’ by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh]
And he (peace be upon him) said: “Verily Allah tests His servant with what He has given him. So whoever is content with whatever he has been assigned, then Allah will bless him in it, and give him more! But whoever is not content (with what he has been given), then he will not be blessed in it .” [Musnad Ahmad (5/24); with an authentic chain, as mentioned in al-Sahihah, Number 1658; as quoted in ‘The True Richness’ by Shaykh Abû Ammâr Yasir al-Qadhî]
Khaana Kaaba has a long and inspiring history. Allah Himself has made provisions for water in the shape of zam zam water. So the long lost signs were discovered by Hazrat Ibrahim himself. Slowly Mecca saw the population of many people and became one of the rapidly growing cities. This was the city where Hazrat Ibrahim laid the foundation of the building of Khaana Kaaba. And hence it is the place of Humaity even now. Muslims from all over the world gather here and perform tawaaf around this Holy Place during Hajj.
B. Hajr-e-Aswad (The Black Stone)
Some people give excuses for not performing hajj or visiting the places of hajj. For them the Quran has clear instructions. That is the whispering of the Shaytan in their heart. He does not want you to go and earn all the reward and Jannah. Allah, the Most High, says in the Qur’an, “(Iblîs) said: “Because You have sent me astray, surely I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your Straight Path. Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them as thankful ones (i.e. they will not be dutiful to You).” [The Noble Qur’an, Soorah Al-A’raf 7:16 – 17]
There is this black stone embedded in the north eastern side of Khaana Kaaba. This stone is known as Hajr e Aswad or the black stone. This stone is actually the meteoroid that once fell on Mecca on a mountain that is known as Abu Qubais. This stone is actually one of the signs of Allah no doubt and is loved by everyone who ever visits this place during Hajj. People provide boasa to Hajr e aswad. Boasa is a form of reverence and love for this when people bow to black stone.
A few km away from the Holy Kaaba towards the northern side lays an open land. This open space is called Hateem land. This place has walls but no roof. Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) is reported to have suggested about this place that it was left without a proper ceiling because there was not enough wood to cover all of the building. A haaji woman or man should perform tawaaf by keeping this place inside but it is not allowed to face Hateem when offering prayers because prayers can only be offered by facing the Holy Kaaba.
The wall which is located on the southern area of the Kaaba’s wall and the black stone is an area called Multazam. When pilgrimage is completed, pilgrims embrace or hug this part of the wall. This is in turn an expression for bidding farewell to the Holy kaabah,
This is so named because the north western edge of the Holy kaabah faces Yemen. It means the pillar of the Yemen. It is not much appreciated to embrace, kiss or touch this particular part of Holy kaabah while performing the tawaaf around the Kaabah.
If you notice closely, there is a white stone present around the Kaabah. This is called Mutaaf and is the place where the tawaaf of the Holy Place is performed while during the Hajj. The tawaaf performance is indeed integral to the Hajj as a whole and is part of the seven circles tawaaf during the hajj. This tawaaf forms the most important worship performed during Hajj so Mutaaf is an important place.
G. Muqam-e-Ibrahim (Place of Ibrahim)
Muqam-Ibrahim (Place of Ibrahim) is a small yet round shaped building sort of structure while lies in the front of the door of the Holy Kaaba and the Multazam. This structure has actually a stone which has been present in its place since the time of Hazrat Ibrahim. It was the stone used by Hazrat Ibrahim in the construction process that is why it is called Muqam-Ibrahim (Place of Ibrahim). Once the seventh round is completed of tawaaf during the Hajj, two raka’at of prayers are offered at this place. The blessings increase manifold when rakaat are offered at Muqam-Ibrahim (Place of Ibrahim).
Zam zam is a small well from which pure zam zam water emerges and will continue to emerge till the end of this world. This well is located at the side of Muqam-Ibrahim (Place of Ibrahim). This well has a strange history. It appeared as one of the signs when the Ishmael rubbed his heels on the ground due to his throat getting drier and drier.
Masjid e Haram is actually the mosque around the Holy kaaba that has a shape similar to that of a rectangle. However it has round shaped corners. Pilgrims are bound to odder their prayers in this mosque during tawaafs and face towards the Holy Kaabah.
J. Al-Safa and Al-Marwa
There are two small mounts which are actually small hills in Mecca and they are located in the north of the Masjid e Haram. Although these hills have been flattened quite in shape now, they have a history that is followed by almost all the Muslims all over the world. Hazrat Hajirah had to run seven times during these two mounts in the search of water and eatables for her son. Hence, pilgrims are supposed to follow her footsteps and walk briskly between these two hills during the pilgrimage.
Places Outside Mecca
- A. Mina
Mina is an open ground which is situated on the eastern side of Mecca. There are three stone pillars situated here which symbolize the shaitaan or evil. These are called Jumraat and are in the following order: Jumrah-tul-Oola, Jumrah-tul-Wusta, and Jumrah-tul-Aqbah. During the last day of hajj that is the 10th of Zil-Hajj, pilgrims are obligated to throw stones at these satan symbols. This process is called Rumi. Many animals are sacrificed on the land of Mina once the hajj has been performed.
Pilgrims gather on the 9th day of Zil-hajj at the land of Arafat. It is such an important feature of the whole process of Hajj such that without it, the process of hajj is not completed and if somebody misses on staying at Arafat, the hajj is incomplete and should be completed the following year.
Muzdalifa is the piece of land which is situated three miles from Arafat on way to Mina. There is a small hill known as Mash’ar-al-Haraam here. Pilgrims from all over the world are supposed to visit this land piece during the course of their hajj. Pilgrims actually spend the 9th of Zil-Hajj on Muzdalifah. Pilgrims offer the combined prayers of Maghrib and Isha here. During their course of stay at Muzdalifah, they are obligated to remember Allah in their prayers and should pray till fajar and then leave the mountains of Mash’ar-al-Haraam. The sacredness of this land is further explained by the hadiths. And also remember that no one is perfect, we all make errors, but the key is to strive to do our best. Allah, the Most High, says, “So keep your duty to Allâh and fear Him as much as you can;…” [The Noble Qur’an, Soorah At-Taghabun 64:16] Narrated Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “…if I order you to do something, then do of it as much as you can.” [Saheeh Bukhaari, Volume 9, Book 92, Number 391; Saheeh Muslim, Book 007, Number 3095]
Muwaqiat is the plural of Miqat. This is the land where the haajis are not allowed to enter without the state of Ihram. Since Ihram is not only depicted by the kind of clothing one wears but also by the intention of being pure and pious as well as having a firm determination about performing rites and rituals with sincere intentions. However there are several places which are scared but where it is permissible to enter without the state of Ihram. At Miqat, a lot of effort and prayers should be offered in order to wash away one’s sins. It is said that Allah, the Most High, says, “And whoever desires the Hereafter and strives for it, with the necessary effort due for it (i.e. do righteous deeds of Allâh’s Obedience) while he is a believer (in the Oneness of Allâh Islâmic Monotheism), then such are the ones whose striving shall be appreciated, thanked and rewarded (by Allâh).” [The Noble Qur’an, Soorah Al-Isra 17:19]
Other places are following:
Pilgrims who reside in or around Mecca can enter this city without the state of Ihram. Ihram is not necessary to be worn by them in their homes. However, people who are residents of Mecca can enter into a state of Ihram upon leaving their homes. Local pilgrims are not necessary to enter into state of Ihram at Mawaqit however they cannot go to other places farther from this place without being in state of Ihram.
Zul hulaifah is a small village situated five miles away from medina on way to Mecca. Pilgrims or haajis from all over the world are supposed to change their usual daily wear clothes at Zul Hizaifa.
Juhfa is located almost 40 miles due south of Mecca. Pilgrims who arrive from countries such as Egypt, Syria and Africa are supposed to enter into the state of Ihram at this place.
Zaat ul irq is situated about 30 miles away from the city of Mecca. This is the place where pilgrims from countries such as Iraq are supposed to wear ihram at this place.
Qarn al Manazil is located about 40 miles to the east of Mecca. This is the place whereby the pilgrims incoming from Yemen and by sea are supposed to enter into the state of Ihram at this land. They should also pray side by side at this land.
Taneem is situated near Mecca and this place is a substitute for Miqat for those who live in Mecca and cannot travel thus far to Miqat. If residents of Mecca want to perform umra then they are supposed to go to Taneem where they can enter into the state of ihram. These residents can come back to Mecca so that the condition of traveling for the pilgrims who perform umra is also satisfied. Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) has said: “Part of the worship of Hajj and Umra is to travel in the way of Allah and to go out of the city.”
The places around and including the city of Mecca is known as Haram. Haram means sacred as well as something that has different boundaries. These boundary walls or side edges are extended to several miles indeed three miles stretch on one single side, while abour 7 miles on the other edge and about 9 miles towards Jeddah. These boundaries of Haram make it sacred. These boundaries actually mark the fact that it is not permissible to hunt or bother anyone inside these boundaries. Other than these restrictions, it is not allowed to cut grass or trees inside Haram. However, a person is allowed to kill dangerous animals e.g. snakes.